innovation efforts had been really crowded out within nasa's budget by an ever-growing human space flight effort and other challenges. and it was, you know, costing us in the terms of some of the great opportunities, i think, that we saw in space. and on the national security side after, you know, 50 years of increasing use of space, um, space was getting more congested, contested, increasingly competitive. in fact, 60 nations now have a presence there. by 2015 there'll be 9,000 satellites with transponders in the skies overhead. are so cluttered, you know, that if you have major collisions, you can actually render orbits unusable. at the same time, we knew that, you know, as others have described, you know, we had big space programs that were, you know, they have these tendencies to have these huge cost growths go way out in years.